Frequently Asked Questions

Click on the question to reveal the answer.

JLM Energy Zefr™

Q. How do I get a permit?

A.  A wind turbine is a structure that requires a building permit. Zoning regulations often limit the height, placement, and other characteristics of ‘appurtenant’ structures, so a conditional (special) use permit or variance may be necessary. It’s usually best to let your neighbors know about your installation. Be prepared to answer questions and clear up common misconceptions with well-documented facts about small wind turbines.

Contact County Planning or Permitting Department to find out what zoning regulations apply to appurtenant, or non-dwelling, structures on your property. Ask if small wind energy systems are specifically addressed by local ordinance, and if so get a copy of the ordinance. You’ll need to know the permitting procedures and find out what documentation is required for your turbine. You may have to submit a structural plan drafted by an engineer, but documents from your turbine manufacturer or dealer may be enough. (A checklist of common permitting issues is available for California residents.)

If zoning rules list small or residential wind turbines as an approved “conditional” or “special” use for your property, you need only comply with the relevant conditions – which usually pertain to minimum lot size, maximum tower height, setbacks, and electrical code compliance. The manufacturer or dealer may be able to help with the documentation.

If small wind turbines are not an allowed use, you may have to apply for a conditional use permit, which could involve public hearings before you local planning board.

Check local land-use codes carefully for special zoning ordinances that authorities may have overlooked.

A turbine owner in California avoided turbine tower height restrictions through a forgotten wind energy zoning ordinance that had been passed decades earlier.

A zoning variance is a project-specific exception from existing zoning regulations. If the zoning code prohibits structures more than 35 feet, tall, for example, a wind turbine will probably need a variance from the rule unless special provisions have already been inserted for wind energy systems. Local county or city planning boards usually have to approve variances.

An application for a variance should cite the specific rule and list reasons why a structure should be excepted. Height restrictions are a common barrier for wind turbine applicants, who often find height limits set at 35 feet because fire trucks could not pump water higher than that when the code was written. These rules are now obsolete, but residents may nevertheless insist on preserving them because they feel taller structures would negatively alter the neighborhood’s appearance. You should be prepared to explain that the impact of your wind turbine will be minimal. Take note of other tall structures neighbors already accept: Water towers, rooftop satellite dishes, cellular communications towers, etc.

BE PREPARED to answer questions about your project, especially if you have to appear at a public hearing seeking a conditional use permit or variance (Conditional or special use permits do not always require hearings, but a variance will.). A hearing may turn out to be a mere formality, but be ready for anything that might come up. Here are some tips:

Seek the support of your neighbors before the hearing.

Compile documented factual information to reassure anyone worried about noise, visual impact, possible affects on wildlife, and property values.

Planning and zoning officials may be unfamiliar with small wind energy systems, so be prepared to explain the basics. It’s helpful to have photographs of similar installations.

Permitting requirements, procedures, and fees vary widely among counties. Fees for building permits, use permits, zoning permits, and “plot plans” can range from $400 to $1,600. There may be other fees for public notification, hearings, and environmental impact studies costing from a few hundred to several thousand dollars.

Q. Do JLM turbines qualify for a tax credt?

A. On February 17, 2009, President Obama signed into law The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (the ‘Act’). The Act removes the small wind cost caps on Investment Tax Credits (ITC) from the previous legislation. Under the Act, taxpayers can now claim a 30% tax credit for the purchase and installation of qualifying small wind electric systems with rated capacities of 100 kilowatts or less. This credit is available from February 17, 2009 through December 31, 2016.

For non-residential customers the Act allows entities eligible consumers to receive a financial grant from the treasury department in lieu of the tax credit. The system must be placed in service in 2009 or 2010 or placed in service before the credit termination date of January 1, 2013 (provided the construction began in 2009 or 2010). (Source: American Wind Energy Association: Summary of Final Provisions in H.R. 1, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, of Interest to Small Wind Turbine Producers and Consumers).

Q. How does Net Metering work?

A. ‘Net-metering’ is a simplified method of metering the energy consumed and produced at a home or business that has its own renewable energy generator, such as a small wind turbine. Under net metering excess electricity produced by the wind turbine will spin the existing home or business electricity meter backwards, effectively banking the electricity until it is needed by the customer. This provides the customer with full retail value for all the electricity produced. Without net metering the excess production is sold to the utility at a much lower price. Under existing federal law (PURPA, Section 210) utility customers can use the electricity they generate with a wind turbine to supply their own lights and appliances, offsetting electricity they would otherwise have to purchase from the utility at the retail price. But if the customer produces any excess electricity (beyond what is needed to meet the customer’s own needs), the utility purchases that excess electricity at the wholesale or ‘avoided cost’ price, which is much lower than the retail price. The excess energy is metered using an additional meter that must be installed at the customer’s expense. Net metering simplifies this arrangement by allowing the customer to use any excess electricity to offset electricity used at other times during the billing period. In other words, the customer is billed only for the net energy consumed during the billing period.

There are three reasons net metering is important. First, because wind energy is an intermittent resource, customers may not be using power as it is being generated, and net metering allows them to receive full value for the electricity they produce without installing expensive battery storage systems. This is important because it directly affects the economics and pay-back period for the investment. Second, net-metering reduces the installation costs for the customer by eliminating the need for a second energy meter. Third, net metering provides a simple, inexpensive, and easily-administered mechanism for encouraging the use of small-scale wind energy systems, which provide important local, national, and global benefits to the environment and the economy.

Net metering provides a variety of benefits for both utilities and consumers. Utilities benefit by avoiding the administrative and accounting costs of metering and purchasing the small amounts of excess electricity produced by small-scale wind energy facilities. Consumers benefit by getting greater value for some of the electricity they generate and by being able to interconnect with the utility using their existing meter. The only cost associated with net metering is indirect: the customer is buying less electricity from the utility, which means the utility is collecting less revenue from the customer. That’s because any excess electricity that would have been sold to the utility at the wholesale or ‘avoided cost’ price is instead being used to offset electricity the customer would have purchased at the retail price. In most cases, the revenue loss is comparable to having the customer reducing electricity use by investing in energy efficiency measures, such as compact fluorescent lighting, efficient heating and cooling equipment, or other highly-efficient appliances.

The bill savings for the customer (and corresponding revenue loss to the utility) will depend on a variety of factors, particularly the difference between the ‘avoided cost’ and retail prices and the amount of excess electricity produced. In general, however, the difference will be between $10-40 a month for a 10 kilowatt residential wind energy system. Moreover, any utility revenue losses associated with net metering are at least partially offset by administrative and accounting savings, which are not included in the above figures. These savings can exceed $25 a month because, absent net metering, utilities have to separately process the accounts of customers with wind turbines and issue the monthly checks. In practice, these checks can be for as little as 5 cents.

The standard kilowatt-hour meter used for most residential and small commercial customers accurately registers the flow of electricity in either direction. This means the ‘netting’ process associated with net metering happens automatically – the meter spins forward (in the normal direction) when the customer needs more electricity than is being produced, and spins backward when the customer is producing more electricity than is needed in the home or building. The meter registers the net amount of energy produced or consumed during the billing period.

Currently, 28 states require at least some utilities to offer net metering for small wind systems, althoughthe requirements vary from state to state. Most state net metering rules were enacted by state utility regulators, and these rules apply only to utilities whose rates and services are regulated at the state level. In recent years many states have enacted net metering laws legislatively, including California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Vermont, Virginia, and Washington.

In most of the states with net metering statutes, all utilities are required to offer net metering for small wind systems. To find out whether net metering is available in your location, contact the American Wind Energy Association at the address below, or go to the policy area of the AWEA web site, and follow the links regarding net metering.

Source: Kathy Belyeu, American Wind Energy Association

Q. How much does electricity cost?

A. The cost of electricity depends on where you live, how much you use, and possibly when you use it. There are also fixed charges that you pay every month no matter how much electricity you use. For example, I pay $6/mo. for the privilege of being a customer of the electric company, no matter how much energy I use.

Check your utility bill for the rates in your area. If it’s not on your bill then look it up on the utility’s website.

The electric company measures how much electricity you use in kilowatt-hours, abbreviated kWh. Your bill might have multiple charges per kWh (e.g., one for the ‘base rate’, another for ‘fuel’) and you have to add them all up to get the total cost per kWh.

Most utility companies charge a higher rate when you use more than a certain amount of energy, and they also charge more during summer months when electric use is higher. As an example, here are the residential electric rates for Austin, Texas (as of 11-03):

These figures include a fuel charge of 2.265¢ per kWh.

Q. What is a kilowatt hour?

A.  A 100-watt light bulb uses 100 watts.

A typical desktop computer uses 65 watts.

A central air conditioner uses about 3500 watts.

If your device lists amps instead of watts, then just multiply the amps times the voltage to get the watts. For example: 2.5 amps x 120 volts = 300 watts


To know how much energy you’re using you have to consider how long you run your appliances. When you run a 1-watt appliance for an hour, that’s a watt-hour. It’s abbreviated Wh. For example:

One 100-watt light bulb on for an hour is 100 watt-hours (100 Wh)

One 100-watt light bulb on for five hours is 500 Wh

Five 100-watt light bulbs on for an hour is 500 Wh


1,000 watt-hours is a kilowatt-hour (kWh). For example:

One 100-watt light bulb on for an hour, is 0.1 kWh (100/1000)

One 100-watt light bulb on for ten hours is 1 kWh (1 bulbs x 100W x 10h= 1000Wh = 1 kWh)

Ten 100-watt light bulbs on for an hour, is 1 kWh (10 bulbs x 100W x 1h= 1000Wh = 1 kWh)

Ten 50-watt light bulbs on for an hour, is 0.5 kWh

Ten 100-watt light bulbs on for 1/2 an hour, is 0.5 kWh

Running a 3500-watt air conditioner for an hour is 3.5 kWh.

Take a moment to understand the difference between kilowatts and kilowatt-hours. The former is the rate of power at any instant. The latter is the amount of energy used A light bulb doesn’t use 60 watts in an hour, it uses 60 watt-hours in an hour.

The “-hours” part is important. Without it we’d have no idea what period of time we were talking about. If you ever see a reference without the amount of time specified, it’s almost certainly per hour.


Q. What are the dimensions?

A. JLM wind turbine rotors are all 36 in diameter. The nacelle is 4.75 tall by 5.874 deep

Q. How tall is the mounting pole?

A. The overall height includes the mounting pole and turbine. The poles come in 5 foot increments.

Q. What are the startup / shutdown speeds?

A. The low speed JLM Wind turbine will start generating power at a little over 3.5 m/s (8 mph). It is self-starting and requires no power or input to spin up. It does not need over speed control because of its design and will continue to output power as wind increases up to 35 mph. The unit will continue to spin with no damage to the system in winds as high as 80 mph (this is a sustained speed, it can withstand gusts up to 125 mph), however no additional electricity will be generated above maximum output at 35 mph due to restrictions on the inverter.

Q. Is it safe for birds and bats?

A. JLM Wind turbines are completely safe for wildlife because they spin at much lower speeds than horizontal turbines and appear as a solid mass rather than a sharp blurring blade that a bird or bat cannot see or detect.

Q. Does the turbine make noise?

A. The JLM Wind turbines are nearly silent because they operate with tip speeds close to the wind velocity. This dynamic is similar to the wind blowing around any stationary object such as a tree or house. Conventional (horizontal) wind turbines spin at up to 10 times the wind speed which causes the whistling sound that can be heard around them.

Q. What are the mass and loadings?

A. The turbine nacelle weighs approximately 15 lbs not including the mount.

Q. How close can these turbines be mounted to each other?

A. The distance between turbines depends on each individual site. Some locations with strong, consistent prevailing winds can have adjacent turbines 6 feet apart. Other settings might require them to be 30 feet apart to minimize shadowing and a reduction in power output. The optimal layout places consecutive turbines in a line perpendicular to the prevailing wind.

Q. Can I sell electricity to the grid?

A. The laws/regulations vary quite a bit between jurisdictions, and there is a physics component to be careful of. There is a concept called ‘net metering’ where customers connected to the distribution system (as opposed to High Voltage customers) can net off the electricity they produce but not below zero. In other words, customers cannot actually sell surplus to the grid from home generation. The regulations that require electric utilities to buy tend to apply to customers directly connected to the high voltage. Most radial systems (i.e., distribution grids) are not designed to have injections of power at the lowest transformer levels. If the surplus power cannot be taken up by the other homes / businesses connected to the same transformer, then the transformer has to be replaced with a two way one, in order to step up power back to the voltage that runs inter-transformer. So there is a physics reason for this prohibition, not just utility policy.

Q. What safety features are there?

A. JLM turbines are constructed of high strength aluminum and stainless steel for a lifetime of use in extreme environments. The interlocking blade structure provides redundant load paths making a highly damage tolerant unit. The unit has an emergency brake for user initiated shutdown. Under normal expected conditions there is no need to stop the turbine, it will safely operate in 55 mph winds.

Q. Does it have accreditation?

A. The Grid-Tie Inverter has CE marking and is currently undergoing evaluation for UL and cUL listing. The turbine and generator assembly is currently be tested for UL listing. With UL listing the JLM Wind turbines are eligible for rebates under all state Renewable Energy Programs.

Q. What are the economics of small wind?

A. Although small wind systems involve a significant initial investment, they can be competitive with conventional energy sources when you account for a lifetime of reduced or altogether avoided utility costs, especially considering escalating fuel costs.

The cost of buying and installing a small wind energy system typically ranges from about $4,000-7,000 per kilowatt for a grid-connected installation, less than half the cost of a similar solar electric system. The length of the payback period (or, the time it takes to ‘break even’) depends on the system you choose, the wind resource at your site, your power provider’s electricity rates, and financing and incentives available. Small wind owners with strong average wind speeds who can take advantage of rebate programs can usually recoup their investments within fifteen years.

Many states have rebate or tax credit programs in place to encourage small wind and other renewable energy applications. AWEA’s state-by-state pages provide information specific to buying and installing a small wind turbine in each of several U.S. states, including the availability of net metering, local or state incentive programs, and utility incentives.

The cost of a wind system has two components: Initial installation costs and operating expenses. Installation costs include the purchase price of the complete system (including tower, wiring, utility interconnection equipment, power conditioning unit, monitoring system etc.) plus delivery and permitting costs, installation charges, professional fees and taxes.

A 5-kW grid-connected residential-scale system generally costs $20-25,000 to install. The best candidates for these systems are homes and businesses with at least a half acre of property, a Class 3 or better wind resource, and utility bills averaging $150 per month or more. If a net metering arrangement is available from the utility, most of the power generated by a grid-connected system can be valued at the retail rate of electricity, reducing the amount of time it takes for a system to pay for itself.

In California, where net metering and the nation’s highest electric rates are combined with a substantial rebate program and a state tax credit, small wind system owners with strong wind resources can recoup their initial investment in under 5 years, and enjoy essentially free electricity for the remainder of the system’s 30-year useful life. Such a wind energy system can be an excellent, low-risk investment. It can provide a return of up to 15-20%, depending on electric usage and the wind resource.

Smaller systems can offset electricity costs, provide independence they can also can be used to offset electricity costs, or to independently power specific applications such as water pumps or recreational vehicle lights and appliances.

A 2.5 kW turbine, including 20-25 foot tower, utility-tie inverter, utility switch box, hardware and installation components, costs about $15,000 installed. A homeowner can typically save at least 20% off the electric bill with a 2.5 kW turbine, given reasonably strong wind resources.(Savings depend on average annual wind speed, tower height, electrical cost and average electric bill.)

Remote systems may require operating battery storage. Individual batteries cost from $150 to $300 for a heavy-duty, 12 volt, 220 amp-hour, deep-cycle type. Larger capacity batteries, those with higher amp-hour ratings, cost more. A 110-volt, 220 amp-hour battery storage system, which includes a charge controller, costs at least $2,000.

The cost of extending the utility grid to a new home location can be significant, sometimes as high as $20,000-$30,000 for a distance of only one-quarter of a mile. For the same initial investment, a utility-independent renewable energy system can be installed that will meet the electricity needs of an energy-efficient home. Such a system will typically include a combination of a wind turbine, photovoltaics, batteries, an inverter, and a back-up generator. These systems can be cost-effective on a first-cost basis alone, not to mention the avoidance of monthly utility bills for years to come.

JLM Energy Energizr™

Q. Will Energizr power my entire house?

A. In most cases: No. Energizr is designed as an essential loads backup, meaning that during a grid outage only certain loads determined at the time of install will be supported. However, it is possible to install up to 4 Energizr systems in a single home if backup is desired.

Q. Will Energizr allow me to go completely off-grid?

A. Yes. However, the average house will require multiple Energizr units to be completely grid independent. The most cost effective solution would be to use Energizr as an essential loads backup.

Q. What type of appliances are eligible for backup?

A. Below is a list of common household appliances selected for essential loads backup.


  • Refrigerator / Freezer
  • Coffee Maker


  • Toaster / Toaster Oven
  • Kitchen Lights
  • Gas Oven, Range


  • Wall Outlets
  • Bedroom Lights
  • Alarm Clock
  • Oscillating Fan


  • Router / Internet
  • Desktop / Laptop Computer
  • Cellphone / Tablet Chargers
  • TV
  • Cable Box

Q. What type of appliances are NOT eligible for backup?

A. The following large sized electric loads are not eligible for backup:

  • AC Units
  • Pool Pumps
  • Electric Oven / Range
  • Electric Water Heater
  • Electric Dryer
  • Electric Washer

Q. How many hours of backup do I get during an outage?

A. The length of backup depends on the power drawn from the essential loads during an outage. Below are some example scenarios for the 8.8 kWh LiFePO4 version. Keep in mind that in addition to what’s stored inside the batteries, you can use what the PV produces during the day.

Example Calculations:

8.8 kWh  = 1kW load x  8.8 hours

8.8 kWh  = 2kW load x  4.4 hours

8.8 kWh  = 4kW load x  2.2 hours

Q. At what point will I need to replace my batteries?

A. The lifespan of batteries are measured in cycles. A cycle is defined as the act of discharging and recharging a battery. In the event of a power outage, you will likely use 1 cycle per day. Based on factory settings using 80% DoD.

LiFePO4 = approx. 2,000 cycles

AGM = approx. 1,100 cycles

Q. Can a backup generator be used in conjunction with Energizr?

A. Yes. An optional backup generator port is available that will allow a generator to both charge the batteries and help power the essential loads during a grid outage.

Q. Can Energizr auto-start a backup generator?

A. Yes. With the addition of the Energizr generator interface (optional). Consult a JLM representative for more information.

Q. Does Energizr require any maintenance?

A. No. Neither the LiFePO4 or AGM battery bank requires maintenance.

Q. Can I use my batteries daily to offset expensive On-Peak kWh?

A. Yes. However, consider life expectancy when deciding on whether or not this will be a viable practice. For most residential rates in California the savings generated by the system will not recoup the initial investment made by the time the batteries have used all available cycles.

Q. Does Energizr include online monitoring?

A. Online monitoring is an optional upgrade. Most products manufactured by JLM Energy can be monitored using our Measurz cloud-based monitoring platform. Measurz provides you information on solar panel and wind turbine power production, battery state-of-charge, and the home’s overall power consumption.

Q. Can Energizr backup medical equipment?

A.  Energizr is not intended to supply power to life support equipment. Any use of the Energizr system to power life support equipment is done at your own risk.

Q. Are there any state or federal incentives available for Energizr?

A. Customers in the state of California who are electricity or gas customers of the utilities listed below are eligible for the Self Generation Incentive Program (SGIP). For more information see additional documentation provided by JLM.

Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E)

San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E)

Southern California Edison (SCE)

Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas)

Federal Incentives

Energizr system installed in conjunction with PV solar are eligible for the 30% ITC. Note: only newly installed systems that have not yet applied for ITC can include Energizr in the incentive calculations. Systems that already have claimed ITC cannot.

JLM Product Questions

Q. Does Energizr qualify for rebates?

A. Yes. Energizr qualifies for California’s Self Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) and in some cases, Federal tax credits. You must apply and be accepted for your specific application in advance of installation.

Q. Does Gridz qualify for rebates?

A. Yes. Gridz qualifies for California’s Self Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) and in some cases, Federal tax credits. You must apply and be accepted for your specific application in advance of installation.

Q. How can I have power during an outage with Energizr?

A. The traditional method to provide back-up power during an outage is a generator. Energizr is a battery management system that allows homeowners to collect renewable energy or energy from a generator, store this energy, and use it for net metering or as a power supply during an outage. Energizr can provide emergency back up power during an outage. Energizr delivers a complete energy management solution.

Energizr’s main properties are:

1. PV generates power that Energizr stores onsite for use when it’s needed.

2. When the grid is down, Energizr allows the PV system to continue to generate electricity, which is used and stored for the home’s needs. When the sun returns the next day, and the grid is still down, this process is repeated. Energizr allows for a constant stream of energy for a home’s use.

3. With Energizr, the house seamlessly moves to stored power as a backup during a power outage.

Q. Can I charge my EV at home?

A. Yes. There are a number of solutions for re-charging an EV that work well in residential settings. An EV charging system ideally needs to pump electricity into the batteries as quickly as the batteries will allow and then also to monitor the batteries and avoid damaging them during the charging process. Energizr meets these needs and performs in conjunction with other residential applications.

Check with an electrical contractor and your EV manufacturer to verify and install the best system for your needs.

Energy Resources

Q. Where do I apply for California Self Generation Incentive Program?

A. California Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP)

Q. Where do I apply for Federal tax incentives?

A. United States Department of Energy

Q. What is the self-generation incentive program or SGIP?

A. The SGIP was conceived of as a peak-load reduction program in response to the energy crisis of 2001. Assembly Bill 970 (Ducheny, 2000) designed the Program as a complement to the California Energy Commissions’ Emerging Renewables Program, which focused on smaller systems than the SGIP.

Since 2001, the SGIP has evolved significantly. It no longer supports solar photovoltaic technologies, which were moved under the purview of the California Solar Initiative after its launch in 2006. It has also been modified to include energy storage technologies, to support larger projects, and to provide an additional 20% bonus for California-supplied products.

The Self-Generation Incentive Program (SGIP) – with 544 completed projects for a total capacity of 252 megawatts – is one of the longest-running and most successful distributed generation incentive programs in the country. In 2011 alone, these facilities provided over 760,000 MWh of electricity to the California, enough electricity to meet the needs of over 116,000 homes. The program continues to make strides towards a cleaner, distributed-energy future.

Cited from:

Energy and Utility Companies

Q. How do I get my utility rate data?

A. You can go to your utility provider’s website and check for Green Button data. If you are in California, PG&E, Southern California Edison as well as San Diego Gas and Electric all work with a uniform data transfer system which is available on their website. In many cases, rate data can be requested and downloaded immediately.

You can also call your utility company and ask for your representative. Your representative will help you get your energy data records.

For an Energizr project, you will want to know your output wattage.

For a Gridz project, you will need one year’s data in 15-minute intervals.

Q. What is energy rate data?

A. Energy rate data shows the amount of electricity consumed, the rate charged and the times of day accessed. This data is key in identifying potential energy savings.

Q. What is Green Button?

A. Green Button is a secure way to get your energy usage information electronically from your utility company. It is a uniform standard that is being established to allow energy data to be acquired securely. Many companies that produce renewable energy products are now able to use Green Button Data to properly specify products that match the needs of consumers.

Q. How can I reduce utility bills?

A. The first step in reducing your electricity bills is to understand your energy use. Get your energy data from your utility company. This data will show when you use the most energy and let you see where there are opportunities to save.

You can save money on utilities and reduce your energy bill by adding renewable energy, such as photovoltaic panels (PV or solar panels). This energy can be net metered to the utility company. Net metering allows customers to sell energy to the utility company, offsetting their energy costs.

Q. What is net metering?

A. Net metering is a service to an electric consumer provided by their utility company. Net metering is the agreement under which the electric consumer takes energy generated onsite and delivers this energy to a local distribution facility owned by the utility company. The utility company, to offset electric energy provided by the electric utility to the electric consumer during the applicable billing period, then uses this delivered energy.

Net metering policies vary. Net metering was established to foster private investment in renewable energy. Net metering is part of the United States Energy Policy Act of 2005. All public electric utilities in the US are required to make net metering available to their customers.

Q. What does “time of use” or TOU mean?

A. Time of use (TOU) refers to a utility company’s system of establishing a billing rate based on the energy demand, or ‘time of use’. TOU is closely tied to net metering. Net metering employs a specialized reversible smart (electric) meter that determines electricity usage any time during the day. TOU allows utility rates and charges to be assessed based on when the electricity was used. TOU net metering affects the apparent cost of net metering to a utility.

Frequently, the generation cost of electricity is highest during the daytime peak usage period, and low during the night, when usage is low.

TOU metering is a significant issue for renewable-energy sources, since solar power systems produce energy during the daytime peak-price period, and produce little or no power during the night period, when price is low. (See battery storage management)

Q. What is peak demand?

A. In terms of energy use, peak demand is the period of highest energy demand in a given billing period.

Q. What is demand shaving?

A. Demand shaving refers to ways to reduce, or shave, energy demand. Demand shaving can be achieved by managing supplemental power supply with renewable energy, reducing overall demand.

Q. What is demand shedding?

A. Demand shedding refers to ‘shedding’ or avoiding the use of non-essential energy demands at key times in order to reduce overall demand.

Q. What is renewable energy storage?

A. Renewable energy sources produce intermittent power—they are dependent on the wind, sun or geothermal activity. Energy storage is one option to provide reliable energy supply while still benefiting from renewable energy. Energy storage allows energy to be stored and then used, as it is needed. Common forms of renewable energy storage include rechargeable battery systems as well as large-scale hydroelectric dams.

Q. Why is energy storage important?

A. Energy storage allows renewable energy to be readily available on demand, not just when the wind is blowing or the sun shines. (See time of use and battery storage management).

Q. What is base load capacity?

A. Base load capacity is the power output that generating equipment is capable of continuously producing.

Q. What is an investment tax credit?

A. An investment tax credit is a specified percentage of the dollar amount of certain new investments that a company or individual can deduct as a credit against its income tax bill.

Q. What is a Kilowatt-hour?

A. A kilowatt-hour is a measure of electrical power, equal to 1,000 Watts. 1 kW = 3,413 Btu/hr = 1.341 horsepower. (kW)

Q. What is a Kilowatt?

A. (kWh) A kilowatt is a measure of energy, equivalent to the expenditure of one kilowatt for one hour. For example, 1 kWh will light a 100-watt light bulb for 10 hours. 1 kWh = 3,413 Btu.

Q. What is base load demand?

A. Base load demand is the minimum demand experienced by an electric utility, usually 30-40% of the utility´s peak demand.

Q. What is load management?

A. Load management is any method or device that evens out electric power demand by eliminating uses during peak periods or shifting usage from peak time to off-peak time.

Q. What is localized power?

A. Localized power means power that is generated and used at the site of power generation.

Q. What is a micro grid?

A. A micro grid is a small-scale power collection and distribution system that operates independently or in conjunction with an area’s primary electrical grid. There are residential, commercial and utility scale micro grids.

Q. What is a DER?

A. DER stands for Distributed Energy Resource. Distributed energy resources (DER) are electric generation units. A distributed energy resource refers to either distributed generation (a technology that produces power outside of the utility grid, such as wind turbines or photovoltaic panels) or distributed power, which is any technology that contributes to the grid or demand side measures. This term has been around for many years, but is gaining popularity as it refers to new renewable technologies that can contribute to an electrical grid.

Q. When it comes to utilities, what is self-generation?

A. Self-generation refers to energy that can be generated yourself: this can be from a generator, renewable energy or a combination of these with a battery storage management system.

Q. What does it mean to go "off grid"?

A. Going “off grid” typically means not being connected to a utility grid. Being “off grid solar” refers to being disconnected to the utility grid and instead, using solar energy as a primary power source.

Q. What does "backup power" mean?

A. Back-up power means a secondary source of power, or electricity, to use when the primary source of power is unavailable. This could be a home battery back up, residential energy storage, or an electricity generator that can operate critically important power until commercial power is restored.

Q. What is a battery management system or battery management solution?

A. A battery management system (BMS) is an electronic system that manages a rechargeable battery (cell or pack). For instance, a battery management system can collect and regulate renewable energy inputs. A BMS can keep the battery operating safely, monitor its state, calculate data, report data, and control energy distribution. Battery energy storage is often part of an integrated renewable energy solution.